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Barefoot and Minimalist Shoe Peer-reviewed Empirical Research

Barefoot Running University is founded on the principle that barefoot and minimalist shoe running should be based on peer-reviewed empirical research.  As such, we firmly support all efforts to investigate both the benefits and limitations of barefoot and minimalist shoe running.  Listed below is one of the world's largest collections of research pertaining to barefoot and minimalist shoe running.  If you have research you would like to add, please contact Jason Robillard at barefootchronicles@gmail.com.

Thank you to Tamara Gerken for discovering many of the following resources!

Arnadottir, S.A., Mercer, V.S. (2000). Effects of Footwear on Measurements of Balance and Gait in Women Between the Ages of 65 and 93 Years. Physical Therapy, 80(1), 17-27.

Bergmann G, Kniggendorf H, Graichen F, Rohlmann A (1995). Influence of shoes and heel strike on the loading of the hip joint. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 817-827

Burge, C. (2001). Comments on Barefoot Running. Sportscience 5(3).

Burkett, L.N., Kohrt, M., Buchbinder, R. (1985). Effects of shoes and foot orthotics on VO2 and selected frontal plane kinematics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17, 158-163

Clarke, T.E., Frederick, E.C., Cooper, L.B. (1983). Effects of shoe cushioning upon ground reaction forces in running. International Journal of Sports Medicine 4, 247-251.

Clinghan, R.J., Arnold, G.P., Cochrane, L.A., Abboud, R.J. (2008). Do you get value for money when you buy an expensive pair of running shoes?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42, 189-193.

Craig R., Parker J., & Callister R. (2008). Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence based?. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Published Online First: 18 April 2008.

Crevier, L.M. (2009). Running barefoot: A natural step for reducing injuries?. The Journal of Muskuloskeletal Medicine. 26(7).

De Clecq, D., Aerts, P. (1994). The mechanical characteristics of the human heel pad during foot strike in running: An in vivo cineradiographic study. Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1213-1222.

De Cock, A., Vanrenterghem, J., Willems, T., Witvrouw, D., De Clecq, D. (2008). The trajectory of the centre of pressure during barefoot running as a potential measure for foot function. Gait & Posture, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 669-675.

Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, Fields KK, Bennett CL, Adams JR, Kuderer NM (2000). The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored research. Lancet 356, 635-638.

Flaherty RF (1994). Running economy and kinematic differences among running with the foot shod, with the foot bare, and with the bare foot equated for weight. Microform Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

Frederick EC (1986). Kinematically mediated effects of sports shoe design: a review. Journal of Sports Sciences 4, 169-184

Froncioni, J. (2006, August 22). Athletic footwear and running injuries. Article posted to http://www.quickswood.com/my_weblog/2006/08/athletic_footwe.html

Hamill, J. & Bates, B.T. (1988). A kinetic evaluation of the Effects of in vito loading on running shoes. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 10(2): 47-53.

Hart, P.M., Smith, D.R. (2008). Preventing running injuries through barefoot activity: sometimes “dressing out” means not putting on your shoes. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. 79(4): 50-54.

Hoffman, M.D. (1905). Conclusions drawn from a comparative study of the feet of barefooted and shoe wearing peoples. American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery, 3(2).

Kerrigan, D.C., et.al. (2009). The effect of running shoes on lower extremity joint torques. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1(12). 1058-1063.

Kirn, T.F. (2009). Running injuries not reduced by gradual training. Internal Medicine News. FindArticles.com. 18 Dec, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4365/is_6_41/ai_n29433090/

Lieberman, D.E., et. al. (2010). Foot strike and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature 463, 531-535.

Marti, B. (1998). Relationships between running injuries and running shoes- results of a study of 5,000 participants of a 16km run. The Shoe in Sport. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers. 256-265.

Morieux, D.C., Freychat, P., Baly, L., Mayer, F., Belli, A. (2008). Barefoot-shod running differences: shoe or mass effect?. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(6).

Rao, U.B. & and Joseph, B. (1992). The Influence of Footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 74B(4), 525-527.

Richards, C.E., Magin, P.J., & Callister, R. (2008). Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence based?. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 43, 159-162.

Robbins, S. & Waked, E. (1997). Hazards of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 299-303.

Robbins, S.E., & Hanna, A.M. (1987). Running-related injury prevention through barefoot adaptations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(2), 148-156.

Robbins, S.E., Gouw, G.J., & Hanna, A.M. (1987). Running-related injury prevention through innate impact-moderating behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21(2), 130-139.

Robbins, S.E., Hanna, A.M., & Gouw, G. J. (1988) Overload protection: avoidance response to heavy plantar surface loading. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20(1), 85-92.

Robbins SE, Gouw GJ, Hanna AM (1989). Running-related injury prevention through innate impact-moderating behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, 130-139

Robbins, S.E. & Gouw, G.J. (1990). Athletic footwear and chronic overloading. Sports Medicine, 9(2), 76-85.

Robbins, S.E. & Gouw, G.J. (1991). Athletic footwear: unsafe due to perceptual illusions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(2), 217-224.

Robbins, S.E., Gouw, G.J., McClaran, J., & Waked, E. (1993). Protective sensation of the plantar aspect of the foot. Foot & Ankle, 14(6), 347-352.

Robbins, S.E., Waked, E., and Rappel, R.. (1993). Ankle taping improves proprioception before and after exercise in young men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(4), 242-247.

Robbins S, Waked E (1997). Hazards of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear. British Journal of Sports Medicine 31, 299-303.

Rome, K., Hancock, D., Poratt, D. (2008). Barefoot running and walking: the pros and cons based on current evidence. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 121.

Shulman, S.B (1949). Survey in China and India of feet that have never worn shoes. The Journal of the National Association of Chiropodists, 49, 26-30.

Squadrone, R., Gallozzi, C. (2009). Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experienced barefoot runners. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 49(1), 6-13.

Stacoff, A., Steger, J., Stüssi, E., & Reinschmidt, C. (1996). Lateral stability in sideward cutting movements. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(3), 350-358.

Stefanyshyn DJ, Nigg BM (2000). Influence of midsole bending stiffness on joint energy and jump height performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 471-476

Stewart, S.F. (1972). Footgear-- Its History, Uses and Abuses. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 88, 119-130.

Vormittag, K., Calonje, R. Briner, W.W. (2009). Foot and ankle injuries in the barefoot sport. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 8(5), 262-266.

Waddington, G., Adams, R. (2003). Football boot insoles and sensitivity to extent of ankle inversion movement. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 170-175.

Warburton, M. (2001). Barefoot Running. Sportscience 5(3).

Zipfel, B. & Berger, L.R. (2007). Shod versus unshod: The emergence of forefoot pathology in modern humans?. The Foot, 17, 205 – 213.